Some research says that can only happen in a few days, while others say that up to six months. The best thing would be to stop drinking alcohol so that neurotransmitters can return to normal quickly. Serotonin is an important chemical in the brain that acts as a neurotransmitter to communicate information between nerve cells. Serotonin's actions have been linked to the effects of alcohol on the brain and to alcohol abuse.
Alcoholics and experimental animals that consume large amounts of alcohol show evidence of differences in brain serotonin levels compared to non-alcoholics. Both short- and long-term alcohol exposure also affects serotonin receptors that convert the chemical signal produced by serotonin into functional changes in the signal-receiving cell. Drugs that act on these receptors alter alcohol consumption in both humans and animals. Serotonin, along with other neurotransmitters, can also contribute to the intoxicating and rewarding effects of alcohol, and abnormalities in the brain's serotonergic system seem to play an important role in the brain processes underlying alcohol abuse.
Alcohol quickly affects the brain, as most of us know, and caution is warranted regarding what we choose to do while under its influence. What is not so well known is the blow our brains take much later, after the drink has left the system.